In This Issue….
                                                                           

- Is this estrogen creating enzyme the link between low Vitamin D and breast cancer?
- This organ’s antioxidant levels explain the link between aging and hormones, says study
- This amino acid prevents leaky gut after intense exercise
- What is the link between vitamin A deficiency and anemia?
- New evidence explains how inositol increases insulin sensitivity

CLINICAL UPDATE – Is this estrogen creating enzyme the link between low vitamin D and breast cancer?


The enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting testosterone into estrogen in both men and women, is upregulated by inflammation, according to this research. Conversely, vitamin D down regulates aromatase activity, thus conserving testosterone and preventing its conversion to estrogens. The authors note that estrogens that are created by the aromatase enzyme (versus endogenous production in ovaries, for example) become dangerous estrogen metabolites (16-α-hydroxyestrone) that promote inflammation and are linked to breast cancer. The authors emphasize “the importance of vitamin D as a possible new tool for aromatase modulation.”
(Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, May 2014)

LINK to ABSTRACT
 Aromatase and regulation of the estrogen-to-androgen ratio in synovial tissue inflammation: common pathway in both sexes. 

CLINICAL UPDATE – This organ’s antioxidant levels explain the link between aging and hormones, says study


The role of antioxidants – both enzymatic and non-enzymatic – in adrenal glands is reviewed in this paper on oxidative stress and steroid hormone production. The synthesis of both end-point (cortisol) and precursor hormones (DHEA) that occurs in the adrenal glands of men and women causes oxidative stress in disproportionate amounts compared to other tissues, even highly metabolically active tissues like the liver and brain.

Steroid production in the adrenals creates high amounts of free radicals, and unchecked free radical-induced oxidative stress “turns off” the production of steroids, protecting the adrenal glands from further oxidative insult. As we age, our oxidative burden is increased and this results in feedback inhibition to adrenal glands which impairs steroid production – essentially linking oxidative stress to declining hormone levels as we age. (Journal of Endocrinology, June 2014)

LINK to ABSTRACT
 Oxidative stress and adrenocortical insufficiency.
LINK to FREE FULL TEXT

CLINICAL UPDATE – This amino acid prevents leaky gut after intense exercise


Inflammation from intense exercise compromises the integrity of the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract, which is one proposed reason for a reduction in immunity after very intense or prolonged exercise such as occurs with long distance runners and endurance sports. A research team from the University of New Mexico found that “glutamine supplementation prevents an exercise-induced rise in intestinal permeability” and suggest this is due to glutamine’s ability to suppress inflammation (specifically, NF-kβ) and activate protective heat shock proteins.
(Cell Stress & Chaparones, July 2014)
(Journal of Applied Physiology, January 2014)

LINK to ABSTRACT The effects of acute oral glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced gastrointestinal permeability and heat shock protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
LINK to ABSTRACT The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on exercise-induced gastrointestinal Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.permeability and tight junction protein expression. 

CLINICAL UPDATE – What is the link between vitamin A deficiency and anemia?


New research explains how vitamin A deficiency exacerbates iron deficiency. In this study, poor vitamin A status reduced the expression of the protein (erythropoietin) that controls formation of new red blood cells. Without enough of this red cell forming protein, a higher than normal amount of malformed red blood cells were made and consequently destroyed by the body’s healthy response to abnormal cells. This deformed production, then subsequent destruction of red blood cells reduced iron levels, thus linking vitamin A deficiency with anemia. 
(Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, October 2014)

LINK to ABSTRACT Vitamin A deficiency modulates iron metabolism via ineffective erythropoiesis.

CLINICAL UPDATE – New evidence explains how inositol increases insulin sensitivity


Inositol, which is sometimes called vitamin B8, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and increase sensitivity to insulin in past research. In this paper, researchers explain this happens because inositol activates several chemicals (fatty acid synthase and PPARγ, for example) that make fat cells able to store more lipids by improving glucose uptake into fat.
(Nutrition Research, August 2014)

LINK to ABSTRACT Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.