Nutritional  Hormones
Cardiovascular Genetics 

In This Issue….                                                            

-  These two vitamins work together for bone health
-  Glutamine supplements benefit diabetics
-  Lipoic acid reduced oxidative stress in healthy population but not in medicated schizophrenics, says study
-  Do hormone therapy and supplement interactions deserve more attention?
-  Carnitine deficiency masks deficiency in this important vitamin that can prevent birth defects
-  Should this antioxidant be a biomarker for neuropsychiatric illness?

CLINICAL UPDATE – These two vitamins work together for bone health

Both vitamin K and vitamin D are important for bone health but this study suggests they interact with each other in a way that provides synergistic benefit to bone health in reducing the risk of fractures in the elderly. In their conclusion, they purport that “intervention studies should include both vitamins.”
(Clinical Nutrition, January 2014)

LINK to ABSTRACT Vitamin K1 and 25(OH)D are independently and synergistically associated with a risk for hip fracture in an elderly population: A case control study. 

CLINICAL UPDATE – Glutamine supplements benefit diabetics

66 patients with type 2 diabetes were given either 30 grams/day of glutamine or placebo for six weeks in this randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Favorable differences in fat mass, percentage body fat, waist circumference and lean tissue were seen in the supplemented group even in the absence of changes in body weight or body mass index. In addition, systolic blood pressure decreased, as did fasting blood sugar and hemoglobinA1c. Cholesterol and C-reactive protein did not differ between the placebo and supplemented groups.
(Nutrition, January 2015)

LINK to ABSTRACT Effect of glutamine supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. 

CLINICAL UPDATE – Lipoic acid reduced oxidative stress in healthy population but not in medicated schizophrenics, says study

18 medicated schizophrenics and 38 healthy controls were given 500mg of α-lipoic acid supplements daily for three months while markers of lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to proteins was measured in both groups. Researchers found that the antioxidant supplement significantly benefited the healthy population but not those with schizophrenia.
(Psychiatry , January 2015)

LINK to ABSTRACT Effect of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on oxidative stress markers and antioxidative defense in patients with schizophrenia.
LINK to FREE FULL TEXT 

CLINICAL UPDATE – Do hormone therapy and supplement interactions deserve more attention?

In this paper, several interactions between commonly self-administered supplements and hormone replacement therapy are reviewed. One example mentioned is vitamin C and its effect of increasing serum estradiol. In one study, a dose of 1000 mg of vitamin C daily increased serum estradiol levels by 20% and up to 55% in women with initially low levels of vitamin C. The authors also refer to an increase in serum vitamin A (retinol) in women taking exogenous hormones, noting it may be due to increased production of retinol binding protein in the liver that is induced by estrogen. Finally, the authors mention an increase in sex hormone binding globulin when women supplemented with a specific form of vitamin E (β-tocopherol). Several other supplement interactions from herbs and minerals are also discussed.
(Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine, August 2014)

LINK to ABSTRACT Interactions between preparations containing female sex hormones and dietary supplements.
LINK to FREE FULL TEXT 

CLINICAL UPDATE – Carnitine deficiency masks deficiency in this important vitamin that can prevent birth defects

Previous research demonstrates that a deficiency in biotin (sometimes called vitamin B7) can be teratogenic (cause birth defects). New research shows that the conventional measurement of biotin often done in pregnancy will not indicate a deficiency if a deficiency in the amino acid carnitine also exists. However, researchers demonstrated that “carnitine repletion unmasked biotin deficiency” suggesting that a comprehensive measurement of nutrient deficiencies is preferred over measurements of single isolated nutrients.
(Journal of Nutrition, January 2015)

LINK to ABSTRACT In HepG2 Cells, Coexisting Carnitine Deficiency Masks Important Indicators of Marginal Biotin Deficiency.

CLINICAL UPDATE – Should this antioxidant be a biomarker for neuropsychiatric illness?

The consequences of glutathione depletion are reviewed in depth in this paper that suggests deficiency of this powerful antioxidant occurs prior to the onset of neuro-psychiatric illness such as autism, schizophrenia, depression, Alzheimers or Parkinsons. The authors go on to suggest that glutathione precursors, such as N-acetyl cysteine, which increase the concentration of glutathione in the brain “are promising approaches for the treatment of these brain disorders.”
(Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, January 2015)

LINK to ABSTRACT Glutathione redox imbalance in brain disorders.